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zkPorter: How will the breakthrough of L2 expansion bring 20000+ TPS?



Editor's note: zkSync is an Ethereum Layer 2 solution based on zkRollup technology developed by the Matter Labs team. Currently, platforms such as GitCoin, imToken, and Argent already support the zkSync solution, providing a Layer 2 direct payment experience that bypasses Layer 1. However, the Matter Labs team believes that it is not enough to expand Ethereum solely by Rollups (whether Optimistic Rollups or ZK-Rollups), because the data availability on the chain that Rollups relies on brings inherent limitations, making it difficult for Rollups to meet future data requirements. The demands of millions of new mainstream users. To this end, the Matter Labs team announced its ambitious zkSync 2.0 roadmap, zkSync2.0 will introduce a new overall architecture, providing a mixed experience of zkRollup and zkPorter accounts (users can freely choose between these two accounts, and both are fully interoperable). In this article, the Matter Labs team will introduce how zkPorter will achieve 20000+ TPS. Here's the text: The mass migration to Layer2 is about to happen. With many application protocols moving from the Ethereum base layer (Layer 1) to Optimistic Rollups and EVM (Ethereum Virtual Machine) compatible ZK-Rollups, many hope that we will finally be able to make on-chain transaction fees manageable. But everyone working on scaling Ethereum knows one of the industry's dirty secrets: Even with Rollups, we may end up back where we started. This is because any real increase in transaction throughput will be quickly eaten up by induced demand. The lending product Artemis under zkLend has been launched on the testnet: According to news on August 6, the retail lending product Artemis under the lending agreement zkLend has been launched on the testnet. Wallets that have entered the whitelist will be able to use Artemis through email links. It is reported that zkLend is a currency market protocol built on StarkNet. Previously, zkLend received $5 million in seed round financing led by Delphi Digital. Other major investors include StarkWare, Three Arrows Capital, Genesis Block Ventures, Alameda Research, CMS , MetaCartel DAO, DCVC, Amber Group, TPS Capital, Ascensive, D3Web Capital, 4RC and SkyVision Capital, etc. [2022/8/6 12:06:12] Rollups can only provide a linear increase in throughput - all data must still be propagated to all full nodes. And to achieve true scalability, we need exponential growth in throughput. That's why we think this is a very important breakthrough. We designed a system with 20,000+ TPS, which provides more security than Optimistic Rollups (see image below). More importantly, it will go live on the mainnet with zkSync 2.0 in 6 months. Why Rollups Are Not Enough Polygon will launch zkEVM on July 21, which can provide "EVM-equivalent" solutions: According to news on July 18, Polygon will launch zkEVM on July 21, which can provide developers and users with "EVM-equivalent" solutions , High-performance zk proof mechanism (zk-proofs) and Ethereum mainnet-level security. As previously reported, the head of Polygon DeFi said that Polygon Hermez will soon launch zkEVM. [2022/7/18 2:20:06] In October 2020, Vitalik announced a Rollup-centric Ethereum roadmap, and predicted that if all Layer1 activities are transferred to Rollups, then Ethereum will likely achieve about 3000 net TPS. This will soon be a reality: both Optimistic Rollups and ZK-Rollups now support EVM compatibility, and they are enabling fast and easy migration of applications from Layer 1 to Layer 2. Ethereum is growing at an explosive, exponential rate. In the past year, the number of DeFi users has increased from 150,000 to over 1.8 million, but the gas fee has grown 16 times faster ($0.20 to $36 per Uniswap transaction)! See the picture below: Why is this happening? Because any improvement in scalability will be accompanied by the growth of user financial activities/transactions, and the increase of new use cases. Let's think about what happened at the same time in the past year: DEX monthly trading volume: increased from 1.72 billion US dollars to 67 billion US dollars; zkTube official website update has been completed: According to zkTube official announcement: the official website update has been completed, and the PC side has been completely revised. Mobile terminals are also available. After this update, users can understand zkTube more intuitively through the new website, and can directly connect to the Layer 2 wallet-PayTube on the homepage to experience various functions of the wallet. zkTube is developing steadily, striving to seek new breakthroughs in Layer 2, and create a new situation based on the feasible expansion plan Rollup. [2021/10/28 6:17:08]DeFi’s total lock-up volume: increased from 700 million US dollars to 80 billion US dollars (an increase of 11,000%!) In one month, the sales of NFT trading platform OpenSea increased from 5 million The dollar grew to $100 million. Compared to the Ethereum mainnet, Optimistic Rollups can only provide about a 25x increase in scalability, while ZK-Rollups only provide about a 100x increase in scalability. Before we know it, we'll be back where we started: gas fees and Ethereum will still be unaffordable for most ordinary users. Cryptocurrency is about to go mainstream. In a world of 3.8 billion smartphones (compared to Metamask's 3 million monthly active-zce users), we need a 1000x increase in scalability to handle the impending user growth. This scalability gap is what inspired us to build zkPorter. zkPorter: The engine that promotes the mass adoption of cryptocurrencies Celer and StarkWare collaborated to develop the ZKRollup version of According to the official blog post, Celer Network, an Ethereum layer 2 expansion project, announced a partnership with StarkWare, a zero-knowledge proof research institution. The expansion solution develops a version of ZKRollup based on zero-knowledge proof. The v0.1 version of was recently launched on the Ethereum mainnet, with the help of Celer's solution based on Optimistic Rollup. [2021/4/28 21:05:02] In zkSync 2.0, the Layer 2 state will be divided into two parts: zkRollup with on-chain data availability and zkPorter with off-chain data availability. Both parts will be composable and interoperable: contracts and accounts on zkRollup will be able to seamlessly interact with accounts on zkPorter and vice versa. From a user's point of view, the only perceivable difference is that transaction fees for zkPorter accounts will be reduced by a factor of 100. Imagine this: Uniswap deploys their smart contract on zkRollup, and users of zkPorter accounts can exchange tokens for only < $0.03 transaction fee. Why is it so cheap? This is because most of the Rollup fee is due to the cost of publishing data on Ethereum (Layer 1); while the zkPorter account can perform thousands of currency exchanges on the Uniswap contract, but only needs to publish once to Ethereum Data Update. ZKSwap’s 80 million ZKS airdrop has been basically completed: Official news, ZKSwap officially announced that the 1:1 airdrop of 80 million ZKS has been basically released, and the circulation of ZKS held by the community has increased from 80 million to 160 million ZKS. After that, the overall market value increased by about 35%. If the user held ZKS before the snapshot, the number of ZKS held after the airdrop will be doubled, and the resulting fluctuations in market prices are normal reactions. Today, ZKS reported the highest price of 11.6666 USDT on Huobi, and the lowest price fell to 5.2 USDT after the airdrop, and is now reported at 5.74 USDT. [2021/2/25 17:50:45] The data availability of the zkPorter account will be protected by zkSync Token holders (ie "Guardians"). These "guardians" will track the state on zkPorter by signing blocks to determine the data availability of zkPorter accounts. Guardians participate in PoS by staking zkSync Token, so any failure of data availability will result in their stake being forfeited. This provides cryptoeconomic guarantees for data availability on zkPorter. It is important to note that PoS in zkSync is much more secure than PoS in other systems such as sidechains. This is because the guardians of zkSync are inherently permissionless: the guardians cannot steal funds. They can only stop producing blocks; in this case, users can still withdraw their funds. Each user is free to choose their own security thresholds. Any user who wants to get all the data available on the Ethereum chain can stay on Rollup completely; but if you are a user sensitive to transaction fees, you can choose to settle on zkPorter (we guess, traders and new users Most likely using zkPorter). This hybrid on-chain/off-chain data solution is called Volition. This will unlock entire classes of applications that would otherwise be uneconomical on Layer 1 or traditional Rollups. Now these applications enter Ethereum and serve Ethereum users. zkPorter vs. Optimistic Rollups All this is possible thanks to zero-knowledge proofs in cryptography. Optimistic Rollups cannot scale this way in the way zkPorter does. If in an Optimistic Rollup chain, the data availability is transferred off-chain, then the malicious operator of the Rollup chain will be able to steal all the funds in the Rollup, and no one can challenge it (Note: In Optimistic Rollups Use fraud proofs (fraud proofs) to challenge potential fraud, and the verification of fraud proofs depends on the availability of data on the Ethereum Layer1 chain). At the same time, zkPorter has stronger security than Optimistic Rollups. why? Let's briefly outline the costs and benefits of potential attacks for both. 1) Attack cost As of now, the cost of attacking an Optimistic Rollup chain by coordinating 51% of the computing power is less than $70 million (when Ethereum 2.0 PoS comes, this will not be a big problem); on the other hand, if the attack If an attacker wants to make the data in zkPorter unusable, the attacker will need to buy and accumulate a value equivalent to 2/3 of all pledged Sync Tokens (almost certainly more than $70 million). In addition, since the attacker will cause significant slippage when buying these tokens in large quantities (and those tokens that have already been pledged cannot be purchased), the cost of implementing this attack will be much higher than the spot price. 2) Attack gains If an Optimistic Rollup is successfully attacked, the attacker can steal all funds in the Rollup. This greatly increases the attacker's motivation to attack. The attack on zkPorter cannot directly steal funds: if the attack is successful, the attacker can only stop block production, but cannot steal user funds. The difficulty of profiting from service interruptions greatly reduces the motivation for such attacks. Building on zkPorter zkPorter is coming. The Matter Labs team is working on getting it into production within 6 months. In no time, we can have our cake ready and ready to eat. zkPorter will be available in zkSync 2.0, our next-generation smart contract platform, which will support Solidity. Our goal is to launch a public testnet in May of this year and launch the mainnet later in the summer. In the meantime, you can make payments using zkSync 1.x (it's live on mainnet since June 2020). In a few weeks, zkSync 1.x will support coin-to-token transactions (through atomic swaps or limit orders), as well as native NFTs (non-fungible tokens) minting, transfers, and atomic swaps.


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