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A major breakthrough in Layer 2 expansion, zkPorter ended the battle between Zk Rollup and Optimistic Rollup



Layer 2 mass migration is coming. As the protocol moves from the Ethereum base layer to Optimistic Rollups and EVM-compatible zk Rollups, many hope we can finally make on-chain fees manageable. But everyone working on Ethereum scaling knows a "dirty secret": even with Rollups, we may be back to where we were when we started. This is because any actual increase in throughput is quickly eaten up by demand induction.

A rollup can only provide a linear increase in network throughput - all data must still be propagated to all full nodes. To achieve true scalability, we need exponential growth in throughput.

So we think this is such an important breakthrough. We designed a system with 20,000+ TPS which provides higher security compared to Optimistic Rollup. More importantly, it will go live on the mainnet within 6 months following zkSync 2.0.

Layer2 NFT market Mint Square has launched zKsync 2.0 testnet: On October 20th, Mint Square, an NFT market based on Ethereum Layer2 ZK Rollup, has launched zKsync 2.0 testnet. Users can mint and trade NFT on the zkSync 2.0 testnet, and introduce Added two new functions of shopping cart batch purchase and timed auction. [2022/10/20 16:31:13]

In October 2020, Vitalik announced the Rollup-centric Ethereum roadmap, predicting that if all L1 activities are turned to Rollup, Ethereum can achieve about 3000 TPS. This will soon become a reality: both Optimistic and zk Rollups now support EVM compatibility, facilitating fast and easy migration of applications from L1 to L2.

Ethereum is growing at an explosive exponential rate. In the past year, the number of DeFi users has increased from 150,000 to 1.8 million - but the gas fee has increased by 16 times! (Fee per Uniswap trade grows from $0.20 to $36)

The total lock-up volume of Ethereum Layer 2 fell to US$4.75 billion, a drop of 13.99% on the 7th: Jinse Finance reported that according to L2BEAT data, the current total lock-up volume of Ethereum Layer 2 fell to US$4.75 billion, a drop of 13.99% on the 7th.

Among them, the top five locked positions are: Arbitrum ($2.47 billion, down 13.84% on the 7th); Optimism ($1.34 billion, down 16.44% on the 7th); dYdX ($464 million, down 0.81% on the 7th); Loopring ($143 million, down 16.52% on the 7th); Metis Andromeda ($114 million, down 17.53% on the 7th). [2022/9/19 7:05:48]

Why? Because any improvement in scalability comes with an increase in financial activity/transactions on top of new use cases. Consider what happened at the same time:

DEX monthly trading volume: USD 17.2 billion --> USD 67 billion

DAO infrastructure platform Layer3 completes $2.5 million in seed round financing led by ParaFi Capital: On September 30, Layer3, an encryption startup that provides tools for decentralized autonomous organizations (DAOs), completed a $2.5 million seed round of financing, led by ParaFi Capital The round was led by Electric Capital, Lattice Capital, 6th Man Ventures, Red Beard Ventures, and Mirana Ventures, with participation from angel investors including Balaji Srinivasan, Kain Warick of Synthetix, and Jai Bhavnani of Rari Capital. The funding will be used to grow the current team of two co-founders — Brandon Kumar and Dariya Khojasteh — to about six people, with hiring currently underway for several positions in the engineering department.

As a DAO infrastructure platform, Layer3 provides a bounty market where users can earn "governance tokens" by performing various tasks, thereby encouraging users to contribute to DAO. Layer3's current clients include Bancor, Rari Capital, and Index Coop, among others. (The Block)[2021/9/30 17:18:27]

DeFi TVL: $700M --> $80B (up 11,000%)

Klaytn announced the launch of KDAI, which will better support platform ecological projects: South Korean blockchain technology company Orbit Chain announced today the launch of "Everydai", which will link Dai with other blockchains through a strategic cooperation with Maker Dao. The first blockchain platform supported by Everyday is "Klaytn" developed by Ground X, Kakao's blockchain subsidiary. ERC20-based Dai can now be sent to the Klaytn ecosystem as KDai (based on KCT — a Klaytn Compatible Token). This will allow Dai to have multiple blockchain platforms and generate more value from it.

Dai as a stablecoin has proven its worth within the Ethereum network, and Klaytn could benefit from incorporating Dai into its ecosystem with the stability that stablecoins can provide. This also provides Klaytn with access to more services that require stable assets. [2020/8/19]

Opensea's monthly sales volume: $5 million --> $100 million

Dynamic | Kuaibo Wang Xin’s video block chain project Xinplayer exposure: Today Jinse Finance found out that the new company Yunge Smart, which was established by the former Kuaibo CEO Wang Xin in March this year, has announced three products, one of which is the district Blockchain video application Xinplayer. According to the official introduction, Xinplayer is a decentralized video file distribution system. It uses blockchain technology to directly connect video publishers and users. Users help video publishers to distribute videos, spread and promote them to obtain benefits, and realize watching videos while watching videos. While making money, the money that users buy to watch videos goes directly to the wallet of the video publisher, and there is no middleman to make the difference. The official website of Yunge Smart currently shows that Xinplayer is under development. [2018/10/22]

Compared to the Ethereum mainnet, Optimistic Rollups can only improve scalability by about 25 times, while zk Rollups will increase scalability by about 100 times. Until we feel these scaling, we will be back to square one again: unaffordable gas fees and an ethereum that is unaffordable for most normal users.

Cryptocurrency is about to go mainstream. In a world of 3.8 billion smartphone users (compared to Metamask's 3 million monthly active-zce users), we need to grow that by a factor of 1000 to account for what's coming. This scalability gap motivated us to build a new product - zkPorter.

In zkSync 2.0, the L2 state will be divided into two aspects: zk Rollup with on-chain data availability and zkPorter with off-chain data availability.

Both parts are composable and interoperable: contracts and accounts on the zk Rollup side will be able to seamlessly interact with accounts on the zkPorter side, and vice versa. correct! From a user perspective, the only perceivable difference is a 100x reduction in transaction fees for zkPorter accounts.

Imagine this: Uniswap deploys their smart contracts on the zk Rollup side, and retail users on zkPorter accounts pay <$0.03 to trade. How can it be so cheap? This is because the vast majority of Rollup fees are due to the cost of publishing data on Ethereum. A zkPorter account can make thousands of swaps on the Uniswap contract, but only needs to post a single update to Ethereum.

The data availability of zkPorter accounts will be protected by zkSync token holders called “Guardians”. They will keep track of the state on the zkPorter side by signing blocks to confirm the data availability of the zkPorter account. Guardians participate in Proof of Stake (PoS) using zkSync tokens, so any data availability failure will result in them being slashed. This provides a cryptoeconomic guarantee of data availability.

It is important to note that PoS in zkSync is much more secure than PoS in other systems such as sidechains. This is because zkSync guardians are effectively rightsless: guardians cannot steal funds. They can only stop producing blocks. In this case, users can still withdraw funds.

Each user is free to choose their own security thresholds. Any user who wishes to have all the data available on-chain can remain fully on Rollup. However, if you are a fee-sensitive user, you may choose to keep your funds in zkPorter. (We think traders and new users will likely use zkPorter.)

This unlocks a whole class of apps that would be uneconomical on L1 or even traditional Rollup apps. They can also now have a residence on Ethereum and provide services to Ethereum users.

All this is possible thanks to cryptography with zero-knowledge proofs. Optimistic Rollup cannot achieve this kind of scaling like zkPorter can. If data availability is moved off-chain in an Optimistic Rollup, malicious operators will be able to steal all funds in the Rollup and no one will be able to challenge them.

At the same time, zkPorter has stronger security guarantees than Optimistic Rollup. To understand why, let's briefly outline the costs and benefits of a potential attack.

1) Attack cost

As of today, it costs less than $70 million to attack Optimistic Rollup with 51% coordination (and it will cost even less when PoS arrives). On the other hand, to make the data in zkPorter unusable, an attacker would need to accumulate 1/3 of the value of all staked tokens (almost certainly more than $70 million). Furthermore, since the attacker would incur significant slippage when purchasing tokens (and would not be able to purchase staked tokens), the cost of conducting such an attack would be much higher than the spot price would imply.

2) Attack income

If an attack on an Optimistic Rollup is successfully carried out, the hacker can steal all the funds in the Rollup. This greatly increases the incentive to attack. In contrast, an attack against zkPorter cannot be directly exploited: if successful, the attacker can only stop block production, not steal user funds. The difficulty of profiting from service outages greatly reduces the incentive for such attacks.

zkPorter is coming. The Matter Labs team is working to get it into production within 6 months. Soon, this cake feast is about to start.

zkPorter will be available in zkSync 2.0, our next-generation smart contract platform, which will support Solidity. Our goal is to provide a public testnet in May and go live later in the summer.

At the same time, you can use zkSync 1.x for Layer2 payments (enabled on mainnet since June 2020). It will support trading and NFTs in a few weeks.

The original text was published by Matter Labs and compiled by Babbitt.


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