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Understand the three paradigms of "data" flowing in the blockchain network?



These three data processing paradigms will change the data market on a large scale in the future. Blockchain is a technology that multiple parties jointly complete the recording process of the general ledger. Multiple participating computing parties connect devices into a network to form an open blockchain network, such as Bitcoin, Ethereum, Polkadot, etc. All computing participants share resources for use by developers and users. In such operation rules, "data flow" runs through every operation step. From the communication of the underlying nodes to block packaging, copying, confirmation, and then to the transaction transfer at the application layer. From transfer transactions in the network to the balance of each node, account data and data on-chain. As such, the data processing paradigm of blockchain is the biggest advantage over data processing in traditional databases. Here, it has to be said that in the long Internet cycle, data has been recognized by enterprises as its core value, and at the same time, a large number of data processing and management problems need to be solved urgently. Fortunately, many blockchain projects are Try to use blockchain technology and combine it with other technologies to form a blockchain-based data solution. For example, multiple structural designs and various calculation forms are added to the data structure of the blockchain. In this article, Plan Bai will explain the three paradigms of data processing in current blockchain projects, including: the most common blockchain data structure paradigm, and the explanatory case is the oracle network Chainlink; the hardware-based data flow paradigm, The case is described as the Japanese Internet of Things project Jasmy; and the most difficult data flow paradigm based on trusted computing is currently realized, and the project is the data trusted computing network PlatON. These three paradigms will definitely change the data market on a large scale in the future. 1. Based on the basic and advanced blockchain data structure, the data flow process of the blockchain network is like this. Nodes discover transactions (data), then package transactions to form blocks, and then start broadcasting by packaging nodes to participate in consensus The node starts to copy the block and save it (or after the consensus node confirms the save, other full nodes start to copy). In this way, the data on the blockchain becomes credible (open and transparent, and cannot be tampered with). The data is stored in the block. Because the block size is limited, the block is often filled with small-byte information, such as Bitcoin transfer transactions, Ethereum transfers and contract call messages. Alipay joins the digital renminbi acceptance network and supports fast payment function: Jinse Finance reported that on December 12, at the first Global Digital Trade Expo Zhijiang Digital Trade Forum, Li Chen, chief compliance officer of Ant Group, revealed that Alipay has joined the digital renminbi acceptance Network, and as the first payment platform to support the fast payment function of digital RMB wallets, "Starting today, Alipay will gradually open the digital RMB payment function for Taobao users." (Whip Bull) [2022/12/12 21:39:20 ] We can replace these transaction information with other information, such as commodity traceability and circulation information. It can also be replaced with any information that can be disclosed, such as advertisement clicks, usage of public welfare donations, bank joint account information, etc. However, due to the larger bytes of other information, it is more suitable to store small-byte information such as transaction data in the block. After multi-party confirmation of the blockchain, these public data are credible and can be read and used. The most widely used example of this model is the Oracle oracle. For example Chainlink. 2. Chainlink’s oracle network data structure We all know that Chainlink has become a price input source for many DeFi applications, because the price feeds provided in its network are safe and reliable enough. According to Chainlink’s technical documents, Chainlink network connects a lot of price Input points, such as Karken Rates, and each price input is updated by multiple independent Chainlink Oracle operators connected to Chainlink, and then aggregated and then processed on the chain. Chainlink's price processing model will form credible price data after on-chain processing, which can be discovered and used by DeFi applications. According to the number of times the data is used, LINK tokens will be paid to the network as remuneration, and the price provider who provides the price feed will eventually receive Incentive income brought to that price. In this model, the data input from outside the Chainlink network is aggregated and processed on the chain, and finally transferred to the demander to realize value. BNB breaks through $300 and hits a two-month high: Jinse Finance reported that according to the latest data from Coingecko, BNB has broken through $300 and is currently at $306.15, setting a new high in nearly two months. In addition, BNB rose by 2.8% in the past 24 hours. [2022/8/5 12:03:13] In this process, there are still many key parts, for example, each price feed needs to be updated by a decentralized Oracle. Each price feed needs to obtain prices scattered in many places, and finally aggregate and process, and the number of scattered oracle machines for each price feed is different. For example, in the ETH/USD price feed, there are 21 oracle feeds. In order to update the most accurate data at any time and process the price feed smart contract, at least 14 of the 21 oracle machines must receive the price data provided by at least 14 oracle machines before the data can be updated smoothly. Whether the data in the above operations is correct and credible is extremely important, otherwise there will be incidents of hijacking the oracle to attack the price of DeFi applications. Therefore, there must be certain rules for handling exceptions, including: taking the average value of the price; restarting the price update if the price deviation is large; having a specified price aggregation time, etc. Chainlink has shaped the best example of realizing trusted data (simple data) based on blockchain consensus, and the rise of DeFi is due to the oracle machine, which has shaped the basic security for DeFi and also exported the blockchain data structure. A stream payment commercialization model, of course, this is still a decentralized commercialization model. 3. Data flow based on hardware acquisition Chainlink's model is widely used, but in the most basic structure above, if we carefully scrutinize, we can clearly see some shortcomings, such as data becoming credible after chain processing, but The process of "data on-chain" and before the on-chain is not controllable. The bigger problem is that Chainlink deals with simple data, that is, data with small bytes and strong publicity. Therefore, such a data model can make some process transformations, and finally create such a data process: terminal (data generation source) encryption-data storage-store data hash on the chain-data flow on the chain MetaThaicoin launches NFT series: According to official news, MetaThaicoin (TAC), an insurance platform in the Metaverse, announced that it has launched two sets of "Noble Creation NFT". The first peace elephant series "METATHAI ELEPHANT". The series is the first of all the company's highest equity tokens. The second trading ape series "TRADING APE". This series is created to commemorate the binary option trading game independently developed by the company, and also has all the highest rights and interests of the company. [2022/7/30 2:47:49] Such a process can be described as a data flow based on the combination of hardware, distributed storage, and blockchain network. Currently, it is good at the fusion application of the Internet of Things network. Today we will give an example It is the Internet of Things network Jasmy that originated in Japan. The network has completed a cooperation with Toyota and Witz, a travel service provider, to process the terminal data of smart cars through the model of the platform, and to mine the value of data on the basis of avoiding personal information compliance. Let's dissect its data processing paradigm. The first is the Internet of Things terminal. The Internet of Things device terminal includes smart devices, mobile phones, computers and other devices with terminal computing capabilities, which can use edge computing to manage data on the terminal. Contains encryption and some management integration. Jasmy’s example of hardware terminal management In this part, because a large number of terminal devices need to be managed, it is necessary to connect IoT devices to form an IoT platform, which is mainly responsible for device management. The next step is because the data category is complex and encrypted on the device side. In order to realize the data call, it is necessary to upload the data to an open network environment, and ensure that the data can be checked and downloaded at any time. But its ownership and use rights require control. Therefore, in order to process a large amount of data, distributed storage will be applied. The most convenient example is the data storage structure based on IPFS. After the distributed storage of data is completed, the binding conditions with the ID, ownership and incentives in the blockchain network are met, and the file hash of the distributed storage can also be stored in the blockchain, which is open and transparent. Blockchain service network BSN will launch infrastructure this month to support NFT: According to news on January 13, blockchain service network BSN will launch the latest infrastructure this month to support NFT that has nothing to do with cryptocurrencies. He Yifan, CEO of Jujube Technology, which provides technical support for BSN, said that as long as NFT has nothing to do with cryptocurrency, "there will be no legal problems in China." The BSN Distributed Digital Certificate (BSN-DDC) infrastructure will provide APIs for businesses or individuals, enabling them to build their own user portals or applications to manage NFTs. Purchases and service fee payments can only be made in RMB. The Red Date CEO also said that NFTs will be widely used in China in the next five years, but the government does not want the technology to be associated with cryptocurrencies or run on public, permissionless chains. (South China Morning Post) [2022/1/13 8:46:45] 4. The data processing paradigm of Internet of Things technology integration This process is different from Oracle's implementation. Terminal encryption to complete subsequent transfers. Jasmy's process is as follows: 1. The IoT platform is responsible for managing terminal IoT devices, and uses Jasmy's SKC service and SG service to realize terminal data encryption and management. 2. The data of the terminal is stored in Jasmy's personal data cabinet for distributed storage. SKC and SG technologies can locate the data to the personal ID or device ID during this process. 3. The file hash of the distributed storage is uploaded to the chain, and the ID on the chain is bound to the file hash. 4. The data transaction application developed based on the blockchain network can carry out the transfer of data value, that is, the exchange of data ownership and data usage rights. 5. The data user can call the data in the distributed storage personal data cabinet. This process benefits from several characteristics of Jasmy. Jasmy has the encryption technology of the Japanese hardware manufacturer Sony in the hardware field and the supply chain capabilities in the Internet of Things field. Other ordinary blockchain entrepreneurs cannot realize the advantages of the Internet of Things. It can be easily achieved. For example, SKC's core technology is FeliCa, a non-contact chip encryption technology that has been used in Japan for many years. This technology is providing security guarantee for Sony products. This is precisely the new calculation method added in the Jasmy structure. Online brokerage platform TastyWorks adds support for SHIB: Nov. 6 News According to its announcement on Friday, TastyWorks, the brokerage arm of Chicago-based fintech startup Tastytrade, has added support for the Shiba Inu cryptocurrency. TastyWorks, a Robinhood competitor, launched cryptocurrency trading on its platform in early February. CEO Scott Sheridan claimed that the move was due to growing client interest in crypto assets. From the start, TastyWorks users will be able to trade four cryptocurrencies: Bitcoin, Ethereum, Bitcoin Cash and Litecoin. In January, the brokerage's parent company was acquired by British online trading provider IG Group for $1 billion. (U.Today) [2021/11/7 6:36:19] In addition, Jasmy can cooperate with hardware manufacturers to launch devices with terminal security and computing capabilities to participate in the network. For example, Jasmy launched the Jasmy Secure PC . Such a framework has begun to serve Japanese companies, including Toyota Motor, Witz, VAIO, etc. mentioned above. Compared with the previous Chainlink Oracle form, the data value realization model created by Jasmy has the advantage of the encryption of IoT terminals and the realization of distributed storage personal data cabinets. If distributed data storage is not considered, Chainlink is also moving towards hardware assistance The network structure of data source security is trying to use the hardware with executable security environment as the Oracle data source to realize the credibility of the data terminal. It is exactly the same as Jasmy's practice on the hardware side. 5. The data flow based on data trusted computing can be seen from Jasmy's design model. After some technical blessings on the simple model of the blockchain, it can achieve very outstanding results. If more technologies are integrated, what can be achieved? ? For data, what data needs most is the attribution of ownership and the trusted flow of data based on data ownership, that is, the realization of data availability and invisible, etc. A series of requirements to ensure the rights and interests of data owners. We can define this paradigm as data flow based on a trusted computing model, which can be split into distributed storage, data ownership definition, and trusted execution. We use PlatON to illustrate this part. In the network structure of PlatON, there is a layer 2 that is solely used to implement trusted computing. Layer 2 can be understood as the off-chain part, responsible for computing and storage. Therefore, PlatON's data trusted computing is also outside the blockchain structure of layer1, which realizes the processing of data, and then uses the rights and interests brought by the blockchain network, incentives, etc. The hierarchical logic and function allocation of PlatON are shown in the figure above. We can see that in the computing network of layer2, State is stored, which is the carrier node of data storage. In this structure, the account model and data storage are combined. Fusion application. According to PlatON’s technical documentation, in state access, although PlatON continues to use the account model of Ethereum to store data, the state data is not stored in the Patricia tree (the storage structure of Ethereum) because of the large amount of data. It is stored separately in another SNAPDB (database) that does not store historical state. PlatON believes that on-chain storage needs to fully consider the cost. Only valuable information that requires consensus among all ledgers should be stored on the public ledger. Valuable information includes: blocks, transactions, and account data..{ }


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