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Golden Observation|How does Taxa enable Layer 2 to have better capabilities?



The congestion of Ethereum has made the Layer 2 expansion solution famous, and also made zero-knowledge proof, rollup and other proof methods become mainstream security technology solutions.

For Layer 2 based on Rollup and zero-knowledge proof, the starting point is to solve the performance of the blockchain network and the privacy of transaction information. It reduces the use of resources on the Ethereum chain by aggregating transactions off-chain and verifying on-chain, thereby reducing costs.

But what we have seen is that in addition to the expansion effect, the application ceiling of the Layer 2 solution is obvious.

For example, the Layer 2 modeled by Ethereum's zk-rollup solution is currently only suitable for token transactions, and it cannot even be matured from the perspective of Turing's completeness.

This will prompt many projects to think about the combination of Layer 2 performance, security, scalability, and developability.

In this article, Jinse Finance interviewed TF Guo, the founder of Taxa Network, and explained Taxa's thinking on Layer 2 design.

Combination of TEE and Layer 2

Golden Morning | List of important developments overnight on January 25: 21:00-7:00 Keywords: Xinhuanet, Pakistan, Twitter, Ukraine

1. Xinhuanet: Looking at the economic work in Yuzhong throughout the year, the "characteristic development of the blockchain industry" is worthy of praise;

2. The Pakistani federal investigation agency seized two cryptocurrency mines;

3. Twitter banned the XRP Tip Bot account, saying it violated Twitter regulations;

4. Most Middle Eastern elites are skeptical of Bitcoin;

5. Ukrainian Finance Minister: Ukraine will ban cryptocurrency wallets for illegal funds;

6. The Lancashire County Cricket Club will issue tickets for this season through the blockchain;

7. Davos expert: Central banks will focus on cryptocurrencies due to fear of being excluded from the emerging encryption industry;

8. The global average price of BTC is 8,453 US dollars, and the current market value is 153.689 billion US dollars. The top ten cryptocurrencies rose more and fell less. [2020/1/25]

Layer 2 is relative to Layer 1. The expansion idea is to transfer the high-frequency process originally carried by Layer 1 to Layer 2, for example, to migrate the swap part in Dex to Layer 2, so that this process does not need to occupy Layer 1 resources. Therefore, the gas is very low, and PoW is not used for transaction confirmation, and the transaction speed is also very fast.

Golden Evening News | List of important news on the evening of January 15: 12:00-21:00 Keywords: Shanghai, Malaysia, blockchain security, central bank of India, BSV, Grin

1. Shanghai: Support the Digital Currency Research Institute of the People's Bank of China to establish a financial technology company in Shanghai.

2. Qi Xiangdong, a member of the Beijing Municipal People's Political Consultative Conference, initiated a proposal for the two sessions, including strengthening the security construction of the blockchain.

3. The Malaysian Securities Commission authorizes token sales on registered IEO platforms.

4. Central Bank of India: I don’t want the blockchain to weaken people’s confidence and trust in digital payments.

5. German Ambassador to China: The application of blockchain technology requires proper conditions.

6. The Zhejiang Provincial Department of Finance and Ant Blockchain have established a blockchain electronic bill platform that has issued 100 million bills.

7. BSV computing power rose by 93% in 24 hours, reaching a one-year high.

8. Grin is expected to reach the hard fork upgrade block height tomorrow.

9. Bitcoin fluctuated upwards, the highest rose to 8900USDT, the lowest fell to 8510USDT, and mainstream currencies generally rose. [2020/1/15]

But if you want the blockchain to bring more valuable applications, it is not enough just to have scalability and low cost of use. The computing performance and privacy of the smart contract itself are also issues that need to be solved urgently. TEE can achieve this part of the function and performance improvement in Layer 2.

Golden Relativity | Gu Qianfeng, CTO of BTC Media: Stablecoins should not be limited to digital currency transactions: In this issue of Golden Relativity, in the discussion of issuing stablecoins, regulation is equivalent to value endorsement. Gu Qianfeng, CTO of BTC Media Asia Pacific, said: The two must not be equated. Once supervision and value endorsement are equated, supervisors and issuers will easily collude, which will quickly lead to over-issuance of currency. The advantage of blockchain is that it eliminates black-box operations, and the disadvantage is that it blocks arbitrary over-issuance. hair door. If the stable currency starts from the United States, it may also learn from this model of separation of currency issuance and supervision. GUSD is the prototype of this model, but there will definitely be great changes in the future. Stablecoins should be an independent public chain and should not be based on other public chains. It should not be limited to digital currency transactions. Credit is endorsed by the corresponding relatively stable assets, and is widely used by mainstream society, financial institutions, enterprises, and governments. Technically, there must be a smart contract, and it is a "chain network" composed of the main chain and countless side chains, a trusted network based on trusted computing, trusted storage, and trusted identity technologies. [2018/9/20]

Trusted Execution Environment (TEE) is a trusted execution environment, which belongs to hardware-based trusted computing technology. Taking Intel as an example, most new CPU models after 2015 have a secure computing area, which is the TEE area. This area is physically isolated and cannot be seen from the inside. And this area is also a high-speed computing area.

Analysis | Golden disk: EOS is dominated by shocks in the short term: Comprehensive analysis of the golden disk: EOS hits a new low in the short term, with heavy pressure above 6.9 to 7.1, and it is mainly volatile in the short term. [2018/8/8]

After special design, this area can be used for it. When the hardware of TEE is used as a node of the encrypted currency network, the capabilities of TEE will be integrated in the network.

Taxa Network: Layer 2 with TEE

Taxa is a blockchain middleware with TEE, which can realize high-performance privacy computing, supports Turing's complete development language, and can access multiple Layer 1 blockchains. The execution of smart contracts is completed off-chain.

Compared with other Layer 2 solutions described above, Taxa founder TF Guo said that the starting point of Taxa's design is to focus on improving the computing performance of a single smart contract itself, the confidentiality and developability of the private data used in the execution of the contract, This allows dApps developers to achieve innovations that cannot be achieved in other blockchains.

Golden Finance Live Report An Xinxin, Partner of Golden Finance: EOS high performance and supportable program development is the key to the development of enterprise-level applications: Golden Finance live report, on the Huobi EOS Global Super Node SHOW, conducted a "Different Perspective on EOS In the roundtable forum titled ", An Xinxin, partner of Jinse Finance, pointed out: EOS's high performance and ability to support program development are the key to supporting the development of enterprise-level applications, and most entrepreneurs will emerge in various industries to promote their own Blockchain application. Apps in the Internet field will transform into DApps in the blockchain field. With the gradual expansion of this scope, the world of blockchains will really come to us. The current infrastructure of blockchains is still not perfect. EOS Whether it can change our lives remains to be seen. [2018/5/14]

So how does the network work?

Taxa Network is an intermediate layer independent of the blockchain. Execute smart contracts off-chain, and use TEE nodes to ensure their computing performance, data privacy, and developability. This kind of contract executed off-chain is called "Taxa Trusted Services" (tServices for short) by Taxa.

The Taxa Network is designed so that each tServices request will be executed and consensused by a group of nodes. The trust assumption of TEE can guarantee the trustworthiness and confidentiality on a single node, and the carrying capacity of the network will also increase with the increase of the number of nodes.

In addition, when on-chain transactions need to be executed, the transaction authorization contract will be deployed on Layer 1. tServices will generate a public-private key pair in the TEE environment, generate an unforgeable signature, and feed back to the user as part of the execution result of tServices. The user or Taxa node broadcasts the transaction authorization token to the Layer 1 Taxa transaction authorization contract. After the contract verification signature is passed, the corresponding transaction will be executed.

Among them, the communication between Taxa tServices and Layer 1 is performed asynchronously, and transactions can be processed and confirmed in "parallel".

According to TF Guo's description, Taxa will integrate more Layer 1 interaction methods in the future, such as Polkadot's parachain, or interact with Layer 1 through a bridge, which can export the network's capabilities to other chains and ecosystems.

Application Possibilities of Taxa

Of course, if Taxa is strictly defined as the difference between Layer 2 and other projects, most Layer 2 is the migration of transactions on the chain to improve the performance of the blockchain, while Taxa focuses on the execution of smart contracts and improves the performance of smart contracts themselves and privacy. Or put the "state transition" process in the off-chain TEE, and only write the final state transition result back to the chain, which is consistent with other Layer 2 project processes. But the design goals are different. Taxa is an extension of Layer 2 with the goal of capacity expansion.

So what kind of different applications can a design like Taxa achieve from Layer 1?

We asked Taxa founder TF Guo about this question, what is its minimum viable product?

TF Guo, the founder of Taxa, said that the minimum viable products that can be realized with Taxa are very rich and multi-dimensional.

In the data industry, tServices, as a trusted third party with privacy and computing performance, can realize the problem of data availability and invisibility.

In the field of games, interactive and information asymmetric games such as multiplayer poker games can be realized.

In the DeFi field, tServices focuses on privacy-related functions, such as currency mixer, Token atomic swap, etc.

In addition, there are dApps developers who have completed applications such as ETHTorrent based on the Taxa SDK. Users can use tServices to match BT torrent sources and downloaders, so that the torrent sources cannot be seen by all and protect the privacy of multiple parties.

Write at the end

The author believes that in order to better serve developers and integrate into the ecology, Taxa will provide developers with easier-to-use development tools and integrate into more ecology. The communication with the Taxa team confirmed the author's point of view.

1: The positioning of tServices: a service-oriented architecture

Taxa is sufficiently designed with a service-oriented architecture, because it has encapsulated TEE as a service module. Tian Fang, the founder of Taxa, said, “Taxa is an implementation of SOA thinking in the dApps world.”

Its team believes that the future of dApps is a layered architecture. Each layer will contain characteristic functions and be combined in a low-coupling manner to maintain interoperability. Layer 1 focuses on achieving permanent storage and non-tamperable state, while Taxa Network focuses on implementing strong privacy and high-performance business logic in Layer 2.

2: Integrate more ecology

Like the previous article "Connecting to Polkadot", integrating more ecology will make the application on Taxa more popular.

TF told Jinse Finance that at present, there are two important types of end users in the Taxa ecosystem, one is dApps developers, and the other is node miners.

For the dApps developer community, the ecology will be promoted from several different levels:

Cooperation with Layer 1 project

Collaboration with other Layer 2 projects

Collaboration with the terminal developer community.

For example, Taxa cooperated with Ethereum’s developer community ETHGlobal in hackathons, cooperated with Web3 Foundation/Polkadot, Nervos, etc. in developer community meetings, and also reached ecological cooperation with Cocos-BCX and other Layer 1 projects with vertical industry advantages .

In the future, Taxa will launch a developer incentive plan to encourage dApps developers to get started with Taxa development. In terms of miner incentives, TF said that Taxa is currently discussing cooperation with some mining pools, and will open the first batch of test nodes, and then will also launch a miner incentive plan for the public.

In the open source community, incentives are always the number one motivation.


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