Crypto Exchange Crypto Exchange
Ctrl+D Crypto Exchange
Home > Blockchain > Info

Ethereum core developer meeting update: Berlin upgrade, London upgrade, Shanghai upgrade



Welcome to the first wrap-up article in the AllCoreDevs series.

This series of articles aims to summarize the progress of core protocol development, so that the Ethereum community can better understand and digest. The "AllCoreDevs Updates" series can be said to be a companion piece to "Core Devs Meeting Videos & Transcripts" and my Twitter Wrap Up.

I hope my summary can share the issues that the core developers are discussing with the wider Ethereum community, so more people can understand what is happening in the Ethereum community; give feedback on it; and even contribute their own solutions .

Berlin hard fork is live on testnet: time to start app and wallet development on testnet!

London hard fork in preparation: EIP-1559 implementation is underway, and the scope of the upgrade is narrow in order to meet the July or August deadline.

The upgrade focus of the Shanghai hard fork is still under discussion: either the core developers will focus their efforts on the eth1->eth2 merge, or when the merge is prototyped, deploy those EIPs that are more popular

Binance will maintain the Ethereum wallet for about two hours tomorrow, and ERC-20 deposits and withdrawals will be suspended at that time: November 7 news, according to the official announcement, Binance will start to support Ethereum at 15:00 on November 8 Network (ERC-20) for wallet maintenance, maintenance takes about two hours. During the wallet maintenance period, the transactions of tokens on the Ethereum network will not be affected, but starting from 14:55 on November 8, deposits and withdrawals on the Ethereum network (ERC-20) will be suspended until the maintenance is completed. [2022/11/7 12:27:50]

The content-zce of the Berlin upgrade has been deployed on all major testnets, and will be launched on the mainnet on April 14, at block height 12,244,000. This upgrade will improve the security of Ethereum and prepare for the deployment of EIP-1559 in the London upgrade. If the reader is running a node and hasn't updated the client version yet, do so ASAP! As for the updated version of the client, it is announced in the "Ethereum Berlin Upgrade Announcement".

On the security side, the gas fees for opcodes accessing the Ethereum state are prohibitively low compared to their computational cost, and EIP-2929 can solve this problem. Taking advantage of the low gas costs of opcodes, malicious actors can create blocks that repeatedly call these opcodes, which are orders of magnitude slower to process than normal blocks. EIP-2929 alleviates this by providing ~3x the gas cost. On the client side, database management has been improved. For example, the snapshot database format of the Geth client also helps to more efficiently handle blocks with high state access.

The TVL of the Ethereum Bridge fell to US$11.77 billion: Jinse Finance reported that Dune Analytics data showed that the current TVL of the Ethereum Bridge fell to US$11.77 billion, a drop of 60.4% on the 30th. Among them, the five bridges with the highest lockup volume are PolygonBridges ($4.111 billion), ArbitrumBridges ($2.47 billion), AvalancheBridge ($2.14 billion), NearRaibow ($971.6 million), and Fantom Anyswap Bridge ($971.1 million). [2022/6/11 4:18:40]

However, in order to alleviate the negative impact of EIP-2929 on users, Berlin Upgrade introduced the matching EIP-2930. It allows users to specify an "access list" when submitting a transaction to use gas fees lower than those specified in 2929. The calculation of the gas fee is a bit complicated, but, at a high level, if clients know ahead of time which part of the state a transaction will involve, they can preload and charge less gas for those accesses. I encourage everyone to refer to this EIP for precise calculations.

CNBC host Jim Cramer is still bullish on Ethereum but currently has no intention to increase holdings: CNBC host Jim Cramer is still bullish on Ethereum, even though ETH has fallen 52% from its all-time high of $4,356 on May 12. In a recent tweet, Cramer stated that he will stand by his stance on Ethereum, but he has no intention of increasing his holdings at this time.

In previous news, Cramer recently revealed that he had sold most of his Bitcoin holdings, but then said that he was still bullish on the encryption market because there was a lot of capital inflow. I will continue to buy Ethereum because people are actually using it more to buy things, including NFTs, etc. Ethereum is not just a currency. ([2021/7/23 1:11:29]

For application and wallet developers who want to experience the function of generating "access lists", the Geth client will soon launch related tools? You can click here to view the development process: More broadly, if you're an app or wallet developer, now's the time to test out the content-zce of Berlin's upgrade on the testnet!

There are 100,519 unconfirmed transactions on Ethereum: Golden Finance News, according to OKLink data, there are 100,519 unconfirmed transactions on Ethereum, the current network computing power is 247.97TH/s, the network difficulty is 3.33P, and the current currency holding address is 48,457,983 , a year-on-year increase of 219,515, the 24h on-chain transaction volume is 2,479,756.81ETH, and the current average block generation time is 13s. [2020/10/12]

Regarding EIP-1559, Berlin is helping in two ways. First, EIP-2929 addresses the biggest risk of EIP-1559: DoS attacks on blocks twice as large as they are today. This was the first reason client developers objected to EIP-1559, and it is discussed every time 1559 is discussed in core dev meetings. In other words, we cannot safely launch 1559 without 2929.

Second, Berlin introduced support for multiple transaction types at the protocol level via EIP-2718. The "access list" creation functionality introduced in EIP-2930 required a new transaction type, so EIP-2718 provides a comprehensive framework to support multiple transaction types. This means that implementing 2718 and 2930 in Berlin allows the client team to do the architectural groundwork ahead of time, ready to support transactions of type 1559.

Dynamic | Analysis Report: Losses based on Ethereum scams doubled in 2018: According to cointelegraph, according to a report recently released by the encryption analysis company Chainalysis, the value of Ethereum (ETH) stolen through scams doubled in 2018 In 2017, it reached 36 million U.S. dollars, double that of 2017. According to the Chainalysis report, the fraud incidents that occurred last year have become more complex, larger and more expensive than before. Chainalysis also reported that Ethereum “has long been considered the cryptocurrency of choice for scams.” [2019/1/26]

Finally, everyone has another worry about the Berlin upgrade, worrying that EIP-2929 will increase the cost of DeFi transactions. However the introduction of EIP-2930 will offset some (not all). The obvious solution to prevent this type of transaction gas fee increase is to increase the block gas limit.

However, there are always pros and cons to doing so: increasing the block size speeds up state growth, which makes it more difficult for nodes to synchronize with the network. On the other hand, not increasing the block gas limit will increase the transaction cost (paying expensive gas fees) for network users. Perhaps this is a more fair compromise: introduce 2929 to reduce the risk of DoS, and then slowly increase the block size until the increased gas fee of 2929 is gradually offset.

With the Berlin hard fork on the way to mainnet, core developers are now focusing on the next network upgrade: London. This upgrade is a bit special, since the difficulty bomb will happen in August, so the London upgrade must be deployed before then. That is to say, the development and update of the next upgrade (London) will start before the previous upgrade is deployed. This is the first time that the core developers have encountered such a situation.

The London upgrade will deploy the long-awaited EIP-1559 on the mainnet. If the reader is new to the EIP, I've put together a list of resources and documented the development process over the past year.

(Translator's Note: ECN archived the translation of the 1559 update)

This EIP alone has changed Ethereum more than all the EIP upgrades in Berlin combined. And the implementation and testing time is shorter than previous upgrades, so the core developers are trying to narrow the scope of the London upgrade so that it can be completed on time. So far, the London upgrade has only included EIP-1559 and EIP-3238 (proposing to delay the difficulty bomb until Q2 2022). After the implementation and testing of 1559 is over, the core developers will be in a more active-zce position, and then decide which EIPs to add.

Since the scope of London's upgrade has been deliberately narrowed, the core developers have begun high-level planning for Shanghai's upgrade. We have the following two main possibilities:

First, we can implement EIPs that are impossible to deploy in London, such as:

EIP-3074: Allow "funded transactions" and more

EIP-2537: Add support for BLS-12381 curve (used by beacon chain)

EIP-2327: Good for Solidity and Optimism teams

EIP-2935: Helpful for light clients and stateless clients

Alternatively, the community is increasingly focusing on the merger between the consensus (eth2) and application (eth1) layers, simply put, the Merge™️. The eth2 spec repository already has a PR for the "simplified merge spec" proposal, and it's pretty close to what the client team should be able to prototype.

While the merged specification may be relatively simple, there are still several engineering issues that need to be resolved in order for application-layer clients to use the beacon chain as their consensus engine. Bringing the attention of client developers on both sides to these issues is how we find and fix them.

The client team still needs to get a better handle on digesting the specs and start building prototypes before they can decide if we're ready to turn all our energy into the merge effort, or if a small working group is needed before everyone gets involved Get more work done. To accelerate this process, clients from the application and consensus layers will develop prototypes of the latest specifications during the Scaling Ethereum Hackathon.

The end of the Scaling Ethereum Hackathon coincides with the completion of most of the work in London and the Altair upgrade (which will take place in June). This means the prototype should be ready in time for us to make a decision about the Shanghai upgrade. ?

The above is the update content-zce of this issue! The next AllCoreDevs meeting will be held on Friday, April 2nd at 22:00 Beijing time. See you next time!

Original link:

Source | AllCoreDevs Update

Author | Tim Beiko


Project Weekly | Cardano Founder: It is expected that the ongoing upgrade work will be completed by 2025

Golden Weekly is a weekly blockchain industry summary column launched by Golden Finance, covering key news, market and contract data, mining information, project trends.

Golden Morning Post | South Korean exchange bitcoin premium rate is nearly 12%

Headline ▌The total market value of cryptocurrencies exceeds 2 trillion U.S. dollars, a record highAccording to data from CoinGecko, the total market capitalization of cryptocurrencies exceeds $2 trillion.

Golden DeFi Daily | The scale of DeFi lending agreements hit a record high

DeFi data 1. The total market value of DeFi: 95.998 billion US dollars The data source of the top ten currency rankings by market capitalization is DeFiboxDeFi total market capitalization data source: Coingecko2.

Ethereum core developer meeting update: Berlin upgrade, London upgrade, Shanghai upgrade

Welcome to the first wrap-up article in the AllCoreDevs series.This series of articles aims to summarize the progress of core protocol development.

Virtual currency: the new "battlefield" of the Sino-US game

The Second World War made all the old world powers at that time become indebted countries due to the war. After the war.

Ebang International Opens an Exchange Who Gives Whom Blood Transfusion?

On April 5, the mining machine manufacturer Ebang International announced that its cryptocurrency exchange EBONEX was officially launched.

What should be the crime for the three hundred million police who broke the warehouse?

According to reports from the self-media, Gao, a senior executive of a blockchain security company, lost 300 million by shorting Bitcoin.